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NAME

osmium-extract - create geographical extracts from an OSM file

SYNOPSIS

osmium extract --config CONFIG-FILE [OPTIONS] OSM-FILE
osmium extract --bbox LEFT,BOTTOM,RIGHT,TOP [OPTIONS] OSM-FILE
osmium extract --polygon POLYGON-FILE [OPTIONS] OSM-FILE

DESCRIPTION

Create geographical extracts from an OSM data file or an OSM history file. The region (geographical extent) can be given as a bounding box or as a (multi)polygon.

There are three ways of calling this command:

The input file is assumed to be ordered in the usual order: nodes first, then ways, then relations.

If the --with-history option is used, the command will work correctly for history files. This currently works for the complete_ways strategy only. The simple or smart strategies do not work with history files. A history extract will contain every version of all objects with at least one version in the region. Generating a history extract is somewhat slower than a normal data extract.

Osmium will make sure that all nodes on the vertices of the boundary of the region will be in the extract, but nodes that happen to be directly on the boundary, but between those vertices, might end up in the extract or not. In almost all cases this will be good enough, but if you want to make really sure you got everything, use a small buffer around your region.

By default no bounds will be set in the header of the output file. Use the --set-bounds option if you need this.

Note that osmium extract will never clip any OSM objects, ie. it will not remove node references outside the region from ways or unused relation members from relations. This means you might get objects that are not reference-complete. It has the advantage that you can use osmium merge to merge several extracts without problems.

OPTIONS

-b, --bbox=LEFT,BOTTOM,RIGHT,TOP
Set the bounding box to cut out. Can not be used with --polygon/-p, --config/-c, or --directory/-d.
-c, --config=FILE
Set the name of the config file. Can not be used with the --bbox/-b or --polygon/-p option. If this is set, the --output/-o and --output-format/-f options are ignored, because they are set in the config file.
-d, --directory=DIRECTORY
Output directory. Output file names in the config file are relative to this directory. Overwrites the setting of the same name in the config file. This option is ignored when the --bbox/-b or --polygon/-p options are used, set the output directory and name with the --output/-o option in that case.
-H, --with-history
Specify that the input file is a history file. The output file(s) will also be history file(s).
-p, --polygon=POLYGON_FILE
Set the polygon to cut out based on the contents of the file. The file has to be a GeoJSON, poly, or OSM file as described in the (MULTI)POLYGON FILE FORMATS section. It has to have the right suffix to be detected correctly. Can not be used with --bbox/-b, --config/-c, or --directory/-d.
-s, --strategy=STRATEGY
Use the given strategy to extract the region. For possible values and details see the STRATEGIES section. Default is "complete_ways".
-S, --option=OPTION=VALUE
Set a named option for the strategy. If needed you can specify this option multiple times to set several options.
--set-bounds
Set the bounds field in the header. The bounds are set to the bbox or envelope of the polygon specified for the extract. Note that strategies other than "simple" can put nodes outside those bounds into the output file.

COMMON OPTIONS

-h, --help
Show usage help.
-v, --verbose
Set verbose mode. The program will output information about what it is doing to stderr.

INPUT OPTIONS

-F, --input-format=FORMAT
The format of the input file(s). Can be used to set the input format if it can't be autodetected from the file name(s). This will set the format for all input files, there is no way to set the format for some input files only. See osmium-file-formats(5) or the libosmium manual for details.

OUTPUT OPTIONS

-f, --output-format=FORMAT
The format of the output file. Can be used to set the output file format if it can't be autodetected from the output file name. See osmium-file-formats(5) or the libosmium manual for details.
--fsync
Call fsync after writing the output file to force flushing buffers to disk.
--generator=NAME
The name and version of the program generating the output file. It will be added to the header of the output file. Default is "osmium/" and the version of osmium.
-o, --output=FILE
Name of the output file. Default is '-' (STDOUT).
-O, --overwrite
Allow an existing output file to be overwritten. Normally osmium will refuse to write over an existing file.
--output-header=OPTION
Add output header option. This option can be given several times. See the libosmium manual for a list of allowed header options.

CONFIG FILE

The config file mainly specifies the file names and the regions of the extracts that should be created.

The config file is in JSON format. The top-level is an object which contains at least an "extracts" array. It can also contain a "directory" entry which names the directory where all the output files will be created:

{
    "extracts": [...],
    "directory": "/tmp/"
}

The extracts array specifies the extracts that should be created. Each item in the array is an object with at least a name "output" naming the output file and a region defined in a "bbox", "polygon" or "multipolygon" name. An optional "description" can be added, it will not be used by the program but can help with documenting the file contents. You can add an optional "output_format" if the format can not be detected from the "output" file name. Run "osmium help file-formats" to get a description of allowed formats. The optional "output_header" allows you to set additional OSM file header settings such as the "generator".

"extracts": [
    {
        "output": "hamburg.osm.pbf",
        "output_format": "pbf",
        "description": "optional description",
        "box": ...
    },
    {
        "output": "berlin.osm.pbf",
        "description": "optional description",
        "polygon": ...
    },
    {
        "output": "munich.osm.pbf",
        "output_header": {
            "generator": "MyExtractor/1.0"
        },
        "description": "optional description",
        "multipolygon": ...
    }
]

There are several formats for specifying the regions:

box:

A bounding box in one of two formats. The first is a simple array with four real numbers specifying the left, bottom, right, and top boundary (in that order):

{
    "output": "munich.osm.pbf",
    "description": "Bounding box specified in array format",
    "bbox": [11.35, 48.05, 11.73, 48.25]
}

The second format uses an object instead of an array:

{
    "output": "dresden.osm.pbf",
    "description": "Bounding box specified in object format",
    "bbox": {
        "left": 13.57,
        "right": 13.97,
        "top": 51.18,
        "bottom": 50.97
    }
}

polygon:

A polygon, either specified inline in the config file or read from an external file. See the (MULTI)POLYGON FILE FORMATS section for external files. If specified inline this is a nested array, the outer array defining the polygon, the next array the rings and the innermost arrays the coordinates. This format is the same as in GeoJSON files.

In this example there is only one outer ring:

"polygon": [[
    [9.613465, 53.58071],
    [9.647599, 53.59655],
    [9.649288, 53.61059],
    [9.613465, 53.58071]
]]

In each ring, the last set of coordinates should be the same as the first set, closing the ring.

multipolygon:

A multipolygon, either specified inline in the config file or read from an external file. See the (MULTI)POLYGON FILE FORMATS section for external files. If specified inline this is a nested array, the outer array defining the multipolygon, the next array the polygons, the next the rings and the innermost arrays the coordinates. This format is the same as in GeoJSON files.

In this example there is one outer and one inner ring:

"multipolygon": [[[
    [6.847, 50.987],
    [6.910, 51.007],
    [7.037, 50.953],
    [6.967, 50.880],
    [6.842, 50.925],
    [6.847, 50.987]
],[
    [6.967, 50.954],
    [6.969, 50.920],
    [6.932, 50.928],
    [6.934, 50.950],
    [6.967, 50.954]
]]]

In each ring, the last set of coordinates should be the same as the first set, closing the ring.

Osmium must check each and every node in the input data and find out in which bounding boxes or (multi)polygons this node is. This is very cheap for bounding boxes, but more expensive for (multi)polygons. And it becomes more expensive the more vertices the (multi)polyon has. Use bounding boxes or simplified polygons where possible.

Note that bounding boxes or (multi)polygons are not allowed to span the -180/180 degree line. If you need this, cut out the regions on each side and use osmium merge to join the resulting files.

(MULTI)POLYGON FILE FORMATS

External files describing a (multi)polygon are specified in the config file using the "file_name" and "file_type" properties on the "polygon" or "multipolygon" object:

"polygon": {
    "file_name": "berlin.geojson",
    "file_type": "geojson"
}

If file names don't start with a slash (/), they are interpreted relative to the directory where the config file is. If the "file_type" is missing, Osmium will try to autodetect it from the suffix of the "file_name".

The following file types are supported:

geojson
GeoJSON file containing exactly one polygon or multipolygon. Everything except the actual geometry is ignored.
poly
A poly file as described in https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Osmosis/Polygon_Filter_File_Format . This wiki page also mentions several sources for such poly files.
osm
An OSM file containing one or more multipolygon or boundary relation together with all the nodes and ways needed. Any OSM file format (XML, PBF, ...) supported by Osmium can be used here, but the correct suffix must be used, so the file format is detected correctly. Files for this can easily be obtained by searching for the area on OSM and then downloading the full relation using a URL like http://www.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/relation/RELATION-ID/full . Or you can use osmium getid -r to get a specific relation from an OSM file. Note that both these approaches can get you very detailed boundaries which can take quite a while to cut out. Consider simplifying the boundary before use.

If there are several (multi)polygons in a poly file or OSM file, they will be merged. The (multi)polygons must not overlap, otherwise the result is undefined.

STRATEGIES

osmium extract can use different strategies for creating the extracts. Depending on the strategy different objects will end up in the extracts. The strategies differ in how much memory they need and how often they need to read the input file. The choice of strategy depends on how you want to use the generated extracts and how much memory and time you have.

The default strategy is complete_ways.

Strategy simple
Runs in a single pass. The extract will contain all nodes inside the region and all ways referencing those nodes as well as all relations referencing any nodes or ways already included. Ways crossing the region boundary will not be reference-complete. Relations will not be reference-complete. This strategy is fast, because it reads the input only once, but the result is not enough for most use cases. It is the only strategy that will work when reading from a socket or pipe. This strategy will not work for history files.
Strategy complete_ways
Runs in two passes. The extract will contain all nodes inside the region and all ways referencing those nodes as well as all nodes referenced by those ways. The extract will also contain all relations referenced by nodes inside the region or ways already included and, recursively, their parent relations. The ways are reference-complete, but the relations are not.
Strategy smart
Runs in three passes. The extract will contain all nodes inside the region and all ways referencing those nodes as well as all nodes referenced by those ways. The extract will also contain all relations referenced by nodes inside the region or ways already included and, recursively, their parent relations. The extract will also contain all nodes and ways (and the nodes they reference) referenced by relations tagged "type=multipolygon" directly referencing any nodes in the region or ways referencing nodes in the region. The ways are reference-complete, and all multipolygon relations referencing nodes in the regions or ways that have nodes in the region are reference-complete. Other relations are not reference-complete.

For the smart strategy you can change the types of relations that should be reference-complete. Instead of just relations tagged "type=multipolygon", you can either get all relations (use "-S types=any") or give a list of types to the -S option: "-S types=multipolygon,route". Note that especially boundary relations can be huge, so if you include them, be aware your result might be huge.

DIAGNOSTICS

osmium extract exits with exit code

0
if everything went alright,
1
if there was an error processing the data, or
2
if there was a problem with the command line arguments, config file or polygon files.

MEMORY USAGE

Memory usage of osmium extract depends on the number of extracts and on the strategy used. For the simple strategy it will at least be the number of extracts times the highest node ID used divided by 8. For the complete_ways twice that and for the smart strategy a bit more.

EXAMPLES

See the example config files in the extract-example-config directory. To try it:

osmium extract -v -c extract-example-config/extracts.json \
    germany-latest.osm.pbf

Extract the city of Karlsruhe using a boundary polygon:

osmium -p karlsruhe-boundary.osm.bz2 germany-latest.osm.pbf \
    -o karlsruhe.osm.pbf

Extract the city of Munich using a bounding box:

osmium -b 11.35,48.05,11.73,48.25 germany-latest.osm.pbf \
    -o munich.osm.pbf

SEE ALSO

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